Bone marrow, a spongy material found within the bones that forms blood, distributes it throughout the body. The cellular components of blood are suspended in fluid known Plasma.
RBC is a rich source of hemoglobin, which transports oxygen around the body and provides energy.
WBCs are cells that protect our bodies from infection. WBCs are cells that protect against infections. They include Neutrophils and Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils.
The control of bleeding is done by the platelet.
Blood Cancer is a condition where blood cells grow abnormally and disrupt the normal functioning of blood cells.
Hematologic cancers are also known as blood cancers. They usually begin in the bone marrow and lymph glands. Then, they spread to other parts of the body.
Here’s a quick overview of the types of blood cancers that are available and their treatment options.
Three main types of blood cancer
The three most common types of cancer are myeloma and lymphoma.
Multiple Myeloma is a form of blood cancer that develops from plasma cells in the blood. Plasma cells are made from white blood cells in the bone marrow. This cell produces immunoglobin, a protective protein that protects our bodies. If plasma cells develop cancer, they can grow into bone and make abnormal immunoglobin. This causes bone weakness, bone pain, easy fractures and an increase in blood calcium. These immunoglobins travel through the bloodstream and are filtered through the kidney, causing damage to the kidney. Electrophoresis tests can detect these abnormal proteins as M Band in urine and blood. Anemia and sometimes low platelet can be caused by the overgrowth of cancerous plasma cells.
Lymphoma – lymphoma refers to abnormal growth of lymphocytes. It is characterized by swelling in the neck, armpit and groin.
There are two types of lymphoma.
There are more than 50 types of lymphomas. By biopsy of the lymph-node, or swelling, it is diagnosed. Subtyping can be done using immunohistochemistry and molecular testing on biopsy. Effective treatment requires precise subtyping.
Leukemia. Leukemia refers to a type of blood cancer which starts in the bone marrow, and then spreads into the blood. You can see a cancer cell in a normal blood exam, complete blood count, and peripheral smear.
Anemia is a condition whereby cancerous cells grow too fast and cause a decrease in normal blood cell production. This can manifest as weakness, fever, increased risk of infection and bleeding. You may also notice bone pain and abnormal swelling.
Is it possible to cure blood cancer
Good news is that blood cancer is curable. With the right medication and treatment, most patients can be free from cancer. Patients with blood cancers have had their survival rates increase over the years thanks to decades of research. According to the National Institutes of Health’s reports, approximately two-thirds of people diagnosed with leukemia will live for five years or longer. Hodgkin and nonHodgkin lymphoma have a higher cure rate of 85 percent and 70 percent respectively.
Although blood cancers have a high rate of cure, it is dependent on the type of cancer, the patient’s age, and the stage. This indicates how advanced the disease has spread. These factors affect the likelihood of curing cancer. Blood cancers such as myeloma and chronic lymphocytic Leukemia are easily controlled to allow patients to live a normal, productive life for many more years.
It is impossible to predict the future when it comes to cancer. Even high-risk patients have been known to survive for long periods of time. Children are often too young to die from blood cancers, especially leukemia. This form of blood cancer is curable or not depends on the genomic factor.
Targeted oral medicine is now available for Chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML). This disease is similar to diabetes and hypertension.
Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), which is mostly affecting children, has a high cure rate. However, we need to do more for Acute myelogenous Leukemia (AML), and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (AML) to make it highly curable.
Treatment options for blood cancer
Treatment of blood cancers aims to eliminate or suppress cancer cell growth so normal blood cells can form. This is accomplished by intensive chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is medicine that is injected into the veins, similar to intravenous antibiotics. Acute leukemia treatment is intensive and can have serious side effects, but they are temporary and manageable. Blood and platelet transfusions are required. These treatments have curative intent.
If you are an elderly or frail patient, the doctor may suggest palliative treatment to improve your quality-of-life. These treatments may include mild chemotherapy and supportive care medicines.